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Courts in Ontario have inherent the jurisdiction and obligation to protect minors (children under the age of 18). This means that when a child is injured as a result of the negligence of another person, the law requires additional procedures to be followed and provides certain protections for the child.
Personal injury claims on behalf of minors have special procedural requirements. An adult, usually the child’s parent or guardian, must assume the role of the child’s decision maker and become the child’s “litigation guardian”. The litigation guardian has the authority and responsibility to make all decisions in the litigation on the child’s behalf. It is the litigation guardian who consults with the lawyer representing the child and gives the lawyer instructions.
Court Approval of Settlements
One of the most significant protections for minor litigants is that no settlement of a claim entered into on behalf a child is legally binding, until it has been approved by a Court. In addition the settlement funds payable to a child are to be “paid into Court” and held by the accountant of the Superior Court of Justice, until the child turns 18, unless there are special circumstances. Special circumstances include a disabled child who requires money for ongoing rehabilitation services or assistive devices. If the funds are not paid into court then they are to be invested in conservative investments such a Guaranteed Income Certificate or a high interest saving account. In cases where the child needs regular treatments it may be more appropriate to buy an annuity so that regular payments are available to meet anticipated expense.
If the funds are paid into court or invested the child’s legal guardian can ask for some of the funds to be released for special or unexpected expenses before the child turns 18, but the guardian must obtain the approval of the Court. When the child turns 18, they can receive any remaining funds.
Motion for Court Approval
The child’s lawyer asks the court to approve the proposed settlement by bringing a motion before a Judge. The motion is usually done by means of an extensive paper record and if the supporting material is sufficient appearing in court is often not necessary.
On a motion for Court approval of a proposed settlement the child’s lawyer must file an affidavit of the litigation guardian setting out the material facts and the reasons supporting the proposed settlement and the position of the litigation guardian in respect of the settlement. In addition the lawyer must file an affidavit setting out the lawyer’s position in respect of the proposed settlement. If the minor is over the age of sixteen years, the minor’s consent in writing is required, unless the judge orders otherwise. Finally the court must receive a copy of the proposed minutes of settlement which set out the terms of the settlement in detail.
On a motion for the approval of a settlement made on behalf of a minor, the Court may direct that the material submitted in support of the approval be served on the Children’s Lawyer or on the Public Guardian and Trustee. They can then file a report stating any objections they have to the proposed settlement and make recommendations in connection with the proposed settlement.
The Best Interests of the Child
In every case the Court will decide whether to approve the proposed settlement based on whether or not it is in the best interests of the child.
Any personal injury claim brought on behalf of a child is complex and involves additional legal services and expenses. The procedures outlined above are mandatory and must be followed.
If your child has been injured, we have the necessary experience representing minors to assist you in presenting the child’s personal injury claim.
Mann Lawyers is a respected Ottawa law firm dedicated to ethics, integrity and results in legal practice. We offer a free initial consultation for potential clients with personal injury claims. To arrange a meeting, please contact us by phone at (613) 722-1500 or 1-888-420-0577 (toll-free) or by email at .
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Frequently Asked Questions
How do personal injury claims for children differ from those for adults?
In many ways both types of claims are the same, but there are some differences to consider. First off, children cannot sue on their own – appropriate direction from a litigation guardian or family member is required, essentially representing the child, and this can be a complex process. In addition, more care is needed in obtaining and collecting evidence, as it is likely that the injured child never thought to retain valuable information. The litigation guardian or a public trustee also handles the claim of a child when a settlement agreement is reached. That said, children can often recover much larger amounts due to the significant impact their injuries may have on them from such a young age onwards.
My child wants to take their case to court. Are they permitted to do so on their own?
Children are not permitted to present their own case in court; a parent or guardian is required to represent them during such proceedings. Even with an experienced personal injury lawyer, it is the guardian who needs to commence the lawsuit. After it is filed and the litigation process begins, the court then may appoint a litigation guardian representing the child in question if the child does not have a parent or a guardian to advance the child’s claims.
How can I tell if my child has a valid case?
If your child has been injured in an accident and there is evidence of another’s negligence, your child likely has a case that works in his or her favour. While an experienced personal injury lawyer can help move your child’s claim along and improve the case by gathering evidence, having enough supporting documentation is vital to reaching an appropriate settlement. Therefore, the outcome of the case can vary from child to child depending on the circumstances of the injury and amount of evidence supporting their claims.
How is fault determined?
The fault of a party for the injury to the child in question relies on the facts. Therefore, it is important to accurately determine the liability, meaning who really is responsible, and the damages, which represent the amount owed to the child and the child’s family for the negative impact the accident has had on their lives. Working with an experienced personal injury lawyer specializing in personal injury claims for children can ensure the best possible results.
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I could never have imagined what care Mann Lawyers have given to my family through the years. Edward Masters is truly a great lawyer and an asset to my family. Thank you.
A couple of years ago my life changed as a result of a slip and fall. I sustained some serious side effects that have continued to negatively affect my quality of life. As a lay person, suffering with a concussion, it can be very daunting to navigate the legal system. Thankfully, I was advised to seek out Mann Lawyers and specifically you (Karine Devost), as my legal counsel. That was probably the best advice I have ever received. Karine, you are intelligent, empathetic and you really "listen". You and your team's professionalism and commitment for a fair settlement went far beyond my expectations. I want to thank you so very much for your kindness and your dedication. I will be forever grateful to you for making my life better. It is because of you that I received a fair and reasonable settlement without going to court.
After having a serious motorcycle accident in 2015, I was comfortable having Mann Lawyers deal with my legal matters. My lawyer, Ted Masters, kept my wife and me informed concerning the legal steps as well as getting help that was required for my recovery. I appreciated the fact that Ted was able to explain things in a down to earth way. He was always available when needed and I would highly recommend him and Mann Lawyers.
I was represented by Mann Lawyers in a disability related case. Ted Masters built a strong argument based on my disability of Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Ted has a lot of experience and strategies to advocate on behalf of his clients. As a result, we were successful. Ted’s approach with me was always reassuring, logical, humane and respectful of my personal situation. I really appreciated that he could be reached easily at all times.
Mr. Cantor helped me settle both my Accident Benefits and Torts claims. Throughout the process he was always my strongest advocate and fought for me even when I was not strong enough to fight for myself. Mr. Cantor, and his Legal Assistant Julie were always there for questions or support. He was able to put together a team that helped me get back to work and normal functions of everyday life post-accident. I was very satisfied with my final compensation and highly recommend Mr. Cantor for his professional, supportive and compassionate services.
I was referred to Kevin Cantor, from Mann Lawyers, after the death of my brother in 2016. After explaining what had happened, Kevin agreed that we had grounds for a medical malpractice suit. Kevin was excellent, explaining what would happen if we went ahead with the suit and what to expect from the defendants lawyers. Kevin was always prepared for court and I never lost confidence in his ability to help me when I needed it the most. Kevin and his secretary Julie both did an awesome job. This was a long process and as the case progressed, Kevin showed complete professionalism, and caring. Kevin was successful and I was awarded a sizable settlement. I would highly recommend Kevin to anyone facing the challenge of losing a loved one due to malpractice and negligence.